And In That Corner … The No. 18 Wisconsin Badgers present a familiar challenge for Notre Dame

Eastern Michigan v Wisconsin
Getty Images
28 Comments

A year later than intended, No. 12 Notre Dame finally meets No. 18 Wisconsin, and the questions essentially ask themselves this week. These two top-20 teams might be facsimiles of each other, and not just because their quarterbacks are so familiar to each other.

Irish passer Jack Coan gets the headlines given he led the Badgers to the 2019 Rose Bowl, but it should not be forgotten that Notre Dame aggressively pursued Wisconsin quarterback Graham Mertz for a couple weeks late in the 2018 recruiting cycle.

Aside from those easy storylines, the Irish big-play struggles on defense can be matched by the Badgers’, as can their difficulties mounting long drives.

To try to distinguish between the two Midwestern powers before they meet at Soldier Field (12 ET; FOX) on Saturday, let’s turn to Colten Bartholomew, the Wisconsin beat writer for The Wisconsin State Journal

DF: My Wisconsin questions seem to largely write themselves. Maybe that is the Wisconsin native in me — originally from La Crosse — as I have some general Badgers awareness without needing to triple down on research.

For example, I know they have been atrocious in the red zone this season. It was 90-some plays against Penn State, right? Yet they scored only 10 points. Let’s go confirm my stats here — yep, 95 plays with an average of 3.8 yards per play, and on the season, Wisconsin has scored only four touchdowns on 10 trips to the red zone, and one such trip actually yielded a touchdown for Eastern Michigan off a 98-yard interception return. To score only three touchdowns on six trips inside the 20 against the Eagles suggests the Badgers’ red-zone problems were more than Penn State being a top-10 team. What have been their issues?

CB: Classic case of shooting themselves in the foot, over and over, to the point I’m not sure the Badgers have a collective foot to shoot anymore. Two turnovers against Penn State, plus an illegal snap, derailed red-zone drives in that game. And then against Eastern Michigan, quarterback Graham Mertz tripped up tailback Chez Mellusi to get the offense behind the sticks and the Eagles made a nice stand on fourth-and-goal from the 1 to turn away the first drive of the game.

The game plan was so vanilla against Eastern Michigan that I’m not sure it’s worth concern yet, because the Badgers didn’t use the play-action passing game in the red zone they’re so good with. Turning red-zone chances into points against Notre Dame will be crucial. Jim Leonhard’s defense is much different and even more aggressive when playing with a lead.

While discussing Wisconsin’s offense, I should delve into junior quarterback Graham Mertz, a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. Obviously, both Irish and Badgers fans are inclined to compare him directly to Jack Coan, particularly this weekend, but I would rather ask about Mertz specifically. He had such a wonderful debut in 2020, then tailed off, and now has had a down-then-up 2021. Who is the real Mertz?

The real Mertz is somewhere in between the Illinois game last year and what we saw against Penn State in week 1. The pressure put on him by the Nittany Lions early in the game seemed to rattle him and his footwork hasn’t given his arm a chance to make the throws he can. I think Mertz will find himself soon — realistically this is his fourth career start with a full roster after dealing with the COVID season of 2020. I also hesitate to compare Mertz and Coan, but one difference that’s easy to see is that Coan rarely is undisciplined with his feet and that gives him a chance. Once Mertz find that every-play discipline, he’ll start to reach his potential.

COLLEGE FOOTBALL: JAN 01 Rose Bowl - Oregon v Wisconsin
Notre Dame fans should recognize that frame and throwing motion. Then and now wearing No. 17, that is current Irish starting quarterback Jack Coan in the Rose Bowl with Wisconsin on New Year’s Day, 2020. (Photo by Brian Rothmuller/Icon Sportswire via Getty Images)

The one comparison between Mertz and Coan I do want clarification on: How much of a competition was there ever between the two? At points I have gotten the sense Coan’s foot injury basically made the decision for Wisconsin’s coaching staff. Did Mertz beat out Coan or did Coan’s injury end the discussion before a resolution?

This is a great point — there never really was a competition. When Mertz enrolled early in 2019, Coan had a massive advantage in terms of playbook knowledge, so throughout that training camp, Coan looked better. Then in the 2020 offseason with everything shut down, Mertz didn’t have much opportunity to show where or if he’d caught up. Then when Coan got hurt, Mertz was the replacement and I believe the Badgers coaching staff said Mertz is the future and he’s got to keep playing to keep getting better.

Speaking of Coan, I know nobody with the Badgers has ever said anything bad about him, maybe literally. What are their thoughts of him? Was there some consternation when he announced he was transferring to a 2021 opponent?

It’s odd — from all accounts I’ve gathered, there’s no ill will on either side regarding Coan leaving. Coan wanted to play, everyone respected that, and both sides moved on. Coan was a guy that everybody seemingly respected because he put the work in, and it sounds like the Irish are seeing that, too.

I’m not sure consternation is the right word because it was known that Notre Dame was going to look for a veteran quarterback to bring in after Ian Book graduated. Adding in his history of being an Irish lacrosse recruit at one point, it was known that when Coan hit the transfer portal, Notre Dame would be an option.

Flipping to Wisconsin’s defense, 13 tackles for loss with four sacks in two games is not overwhelming, but my memory says the Badgers front-seven is the defensive strength. Given the evolving and revolving nature of Notre Dame’s offensive line, how aggressive is that front-seven? How strong is the pass rush?

I’d disagree a bit in that the front isn’t overwhelming when you consider both of UW’s opponents thus far completely abandoned the run game between the tackles because they weren’t getting movement. That said, I expect the front to be particularly aggressive early and try to put Coan and the Notre Dame offense in tough positions. A fast start on either side could swing this game.

The pass rush is improved from last year, with sophomore outside linebacker Nick Herbig showing much better body control around the edge and a better set of moves to get around tackles.

I know linebacker Leo Chanel (three sacks in seven games in 2020, six total tackles for loss) returns this week after missing the first two games due to a positive coronavirus test. How much of an impact might he have?

Assuming he’s able to play in full — Wisconsin says he will be, but we all know recovering from COVID can be difficult — I think he’ll have a big impact, particularly as a pass-rusher. Notre Dame’s tackles have been rough, and a great strength of Jim Leonhard’s defense is creating one-on-one matchups up front. That includes getting a running back on blitzing linebackers. I expect Chenal to be rushing Coan or Tyler Buchner often.

The Irish have gained 28 percent of their total yardage on explosive scoring plays (touchdowns longer than 20 yards), which is a drastic shift in South Bend. If Wisconsin can tamp down big plays, Notre Dame will struggle to put together multiple long drives. Penn State enjoyed a few long passes, including a 49-yard touchdown to open the scoring. How vulnerable is the Badgers secondary?

The secondary is somewhat vulnerable down the field because those players don’t possess elite speed — Penn State’s Jahan Dotson took advantage of that and a miscommunication on the coverage being played to score that long touchdown.

Notre Dame’s big-play ability was a focal point this week for the Badgers, as was eliminating the communication issues that can allow big plays. I do believe part of the game plan this week is to not allow the big completions and see if Coan, Buchner and Tommy Rees can stay patient for long drives.

That thought may be the only reason I don’t anticipate another 16-10 slogfest. With the Badgers favored by 6.5 points, what do you see coming on Saturday?

I do see a slogfest coming, actually. It’s hard for me to envision Wisconsin’s offense becoming a high-flying, high-scoring outfit after an idle week and I also don’t see the Badgers defense allowing too many big plays, which should make it harder for the Irish to put up big points.

I think Wisconsin wins a narrow one that’s led by the defense creating a turnover or two.

The lull of National Signing Day underscores need to move the early signing period

Getty Images
2 Comments

The early-morning chaos of today’s National Signing Day did not disappear with the implementation of the December “early” signing period in the 2018 recruiting cycle. It just moved six weeks earlier.

In 2014, waking up at 6:45 a.m. ET to be logged on and publishing at 7 a.m. led to noticing one expected recruit had not yet signed with Notre Dame by 8 a.m. Pointing that out and reminding the world Michigan State was making a late push led to an Irish media relations staffer reaching out to quietly say something to the extent of, “Just letting the young man have his moment at school.”

In 2017, less than two weeks after taking over this gig, waking up at 3 a.m. CT to churn through 2,000 words before signings could begin becoming official eventually led to napping through Brian Kelly’s Signing Day press conference.

Nothing changed 10 months later. That December, the afternoon of Dec. 22, the Friday before Christmas, was spent waiting for receiver Braden Lenzy to officially choose Notre Dame over Oregon. Sitting at your parents’ kitchen table not helping your niece make a gingerbread house because recruiting-obsessed fans harassed a player through two de-commitments is not a strong way to conjure up holiday spirit.

Coaches across the country advocated for the earlier signing period, claiming it would allow high-school seniors to make their collegiate decisions official earlier on in their senior years, particularly when the prospects had already made up their minds on where to play football at the next level. That was all optics, if even that.

These high schoolers now make their decision official just six weeks earlier. In the preps football calendar, those six weeks are meaningless. Both the December signing period and today, the traditional National Signing Day, come well after the high-school seasons have ended.

The truth was, coaches across the country did not want to tend to their solid commitments over Christmas and New Year’s, particularly not amid bowl prep. It was self-serving at best and short-sighted at worst.

First of all, when the December signing period became reality in 2017, one-time transfers were not yet allowed without losing eligibility the following season. Secondly, no one predicted the early signing period would lead to the coaching carousel beginning earlier and earlier in the season. September firings used to be the result of only off-field scandals, not outright expected from half a dozen programs each fall. Athletic directors now want that headstart on hiring a new coach so he can have time before the December signing period commences.

Exhibit A: Notre Dame may have ended up with Marcus Freeman as its head coach after Brian Kelly’s abrupt departure following the 2021 season, but if the primary signing date had not been lingering just a few weeks away, Kelly likely would not have jumped to LSU before the College Football Playoff field was set, and Irish director of athletics Jack Swarbrick would have taken more time in choosing his next head coach, more than the 48 hours he used last December. After all, Swarbrick took 10 days in hiring Kelly in 2009.

Lastly, with a 12-team Playoff coming in 2025, December will become only more hectic.

Those head coaches who wanted a little less stress over the holidays will then have to deal with, in chronological order:

— Keeping their own jobs.
— Securing their recruiting classes in the days immediately preceding Christmas.
— Preparing their teams for bowl games.
— Preparing their teams for up to four games if in the Playoff.
— Re-recruiting any players considering entering the transfer portal before the winter window closes.
— Winning a bowl game.
— Retaining their coaching staffs.
— Oh, and celebrate the holidays with their families, as was their want when they hollered for the early signing period.

Most of those tasks are immutable and inherent to the sport.

But one can move. It already has once.

The logic is too clear. Nothing was gained in moving up the primary signing date by six weeks. And sanity was lost.

This is, of course, a sport that prefers to ignore logic, but usually that is charming. A mustard bottle on the field is quirky; lacking a worthwhile voice of authority is stubbornly stupid.

So the early signing period may not move as soon as it should (now), but it will move. There are no anti-trust worries tied to it, fortunately.

And aside from the logic, cramming more content into December costs the media, too. Spreading out that context through the vacuum of mid-January to mid-March will be much appreciated.

Leftovers & Links: An early look at Notre Dame’s seven commits in the class of 2024, including QB CJ Carr

26 Comments

The traditional National Signing Day is this Wednesday, and for yet another year, Notre Dame has no intentions of inking any high-school recruits on the first Wednesday of February. The recruiting calendar has so changed that the Irish have not signed a recruit in February since 2021, when running back Logan Diggs pondered a late LSU push before doubling down on his Notre Dame commitment. Before that, not since 2019, when defensive end Isaiah Foskey publicly did so in order to be a part of his high school’s ceremonies.

Notre Dame turned its focus entirely onto the class of 2024 following December’s early signing period, when it inked a class of 24 players that ranks No. 9 in the country, per rivals.com.

Now with nearly 10 months to go before the next decision day to influence the narrative around Irish head coach Marcus Freeman’s recruiting focus, he already has pledges from seven players in the class of 2024. Class rankings this early in the cycle are rather meaningless, but for the sake of thoroughness, the Notre Dame class of 2024 is currently ranked No. 2 in the country, behind only Georgia with nine recruits pledged to date.

One player stands out among the early Irish seven. He stands out to such a degree this space broke from usual form when he committed in early June. To pull from that opening,

“This space has a general rule to not report on recruiting developments classes ahead of time. Worrying about the thoughts of high school seniors is enough of an oddity; focusing on juniors and underclassmen is outright absurd.

“But exceptions exist to prove rules, and Notre Dame landing the commitment of the No. 3 quarterback in the class of 2024 — prospects entering their junior years of high school — is such an exception.”

Consensus four-star quarterback CJ Carr is now only the No. 4 pro-style quarterback in the class and the No. 14 recruit overall, but he is the kind of key piece to a recruiting class that the Irish lacked in 2023, despite Freeman’s continued excellence hauling in defensive prospects. Carr has been an active and vocal recruiter on his own for Notre Dame, not an unusual occurrence from an early commit but a habit the Irish have not garnered out of a quarterback in quite some time. Even Tyler Buchner, due to both the pandemic and his own soft-spoken nature, was not the loudest campaigner among his peers.

RELATED READING: Notre Dame beats out Michigan for Lloyd Carr’s grandson, QB CJ Carr

At 6-foot-3, Carr looks the part of a prototypical quarterback, and his arm strength fits in line with that thought. He has downfield touch that would open up Notre Dame’s playbook in a way entirely unseen in 2022.

The other six early commitments to the Irish in the class of 2024 …

Consensus four-star running back Aneyas Williams (Hannibal High School; Mo.), ranked as the No. 1 all-purpose running back and No. 106 recruit in the class, per rivals.com: There will be many comparisons to former Notre Dame running back Kyren Williams when Aneyas Williams arrives on campus, and though they are from the same state, there is no relation. The younger Williams can do a bit of everything while his 5-foot-10 frame carries plenty of punch. He lacks truly elite speed, as Kyren did, but obviously that did not kept the elder Williams from cracking 1,000 yards in back-to-back seasons.

Consensus four-star receiver Cam Williams (Glenbard South H.S.; Glen Ellyn, Ill.), ranked as the No. 11 receiver and No. 102 recruit in the class: The Chicagoland product visited Iowa a handful of times and took looks at Michigan and Wisconsin, seemingly intent on staying in the Midwest. Williams has all the fundamentals wanted of a receiver, 6-foot-2 size combined with a comfort catching the ball. Time will reveal what part of his game, if any, develops into his specialty.

Consensus four-star tight end Jack Larsen (Charlotte Catholic; N.C.), ranked as the No. 7 tight end and No. 187 recruit in the class: Whether Larsen will be the next piece of “Tight End U” or not is a premature thought, but at 6-foot-3 and an ability to snag passes downfield over defenders, Larsen already looks the part. Credit a basketball background for that aerial ability.

Four-star offensive guard Peter Jones (Malvern Prep; Penn.), ranked as the No. 4 offensive guard and No. 99 recruit in the class: Jones plays tackle in high school, nearly an absolute requirement for any offensive line prospect chased by Irish offensive line coach Harry Hiestand, but his playing style suggests a future on the inside of the line.

Consensus four-star defensive tackle Owen Wafle (Hun School; Princeton, N.J.), ranked as the No. 10 defensive tackle in the class: Pronounced like playful, not waffle, Wafle should add weight to his 6-foot-3, 235-pound frame as he grows from a high-school junior into a college player. That may seem obvious, but the quality of that weight he adds in the next 20 months will be what most determines how quickly he can contribute in South Bend.

Consensus three-star cornerback Karson Hobbs (Archbishop Moeller; Cincinnati): Anyone committed right now has made a decision relatively early in the recruiting cycle, yet Hobbs was committed to South Carolina for three months before he flipped to Notre Dame in early November. Seeking out a committed three-star more than a year before he can officially sign may strike one as foolish, but Irish cornerbacks coach Mike Mickens has earned some leeway in his evaluations, given the early impacts of Benjamin Morrison and Jaden Mickey in 2022.

INSIDE THE IRISH
Ohio State, Clemson & Pittsburgh hurt most by early NFL draft entrants among Notre Dame’s opponents
40 Preseason Predictions Revisited, part I: Notre Dame’s rushing offense hid many early struggles
Part II: Notre Dame’s upset losses should have been expected from a first-year head coach
Part III: Notre Dame’s November far from the expected disappointment
Part IV: Notre Dame’s 2022 ended where it was always expected to

OUTSIDE READING
How QB Sam Hartman found trouble with turnovers in 2022
College QB Austin Reed got transfer portal offers comparable to late-round NFL draft picks
I requested my Notre Dame admissions file
Boston College, offensive coordinator John McNulty parting ways after 2022 struggles
Hamlin’s injury highlights precarious position of many young N.F.L. players
On the Broncos’ head-coaching finalists
Bally Sports RSNs headed for bankruptcy
Auditor: LSU overpaid Brian Kelly by more than $1M in 2022

40 Preseason Predictions Revisited, part IV: Notre Dame’s 2022 ended where it was always expected to

TaxSlayer Gator Bowl - Notre Dame v South Carolina
Getty Images
6 Comments

Notre Dame did not get there in any way expected, but the Irish season ended about where anticipated in the preseason. Psychological studies could spend hours disagreeing if it would have been better for Notre Dame to go 10-3 with its three losses coming to three top-10 teams or if a 9-4 season with a top-10 upset is better for Marcus Freeman’s program in the long-term.

But either scenario was going to end with the Irish in the Gator Bowl, a likelihood as far back as August.

To finish this recap of 40 preseason predictions

32) “A freshman defensive back will intercept a pass this season, becoming just the second freshman to do so” since 2017. Notre Dame’s defensive backfields have been far from liabilities during this resurgence since the 2016 faceplant, but they have lacked young playmakers, Kyle Hamilton aside.

Enter Benjamin Morrison and not one, not two, not three … but six interceptions in his freshman season. Unfortunately for your prognosticator, that does not equal six correct predictions. (15.5/32)

33) “The spread when the Irish visit the Trojans will be more than a field goal but less than a touchdown.” And indeed, USC was favored by four when Notre Dame visited the weekend after Thanksgiving, in what may have been the last visit the weekend after Thanksgiving. Logic says the Irish and Trojans will continue playing regularly, but USC’s joining the Big Ten in 2024 could change the timing of the meetings, and NCAA rule changes have removed Notre Dame’s want to be on the West Coast that particular week.

The Irish used to disperse their coaches from Washington to Arizona to recruit the Pacific time zone immediately after the season-ending game in California. In a literal sense, it saved those coaches 12-24 hours to not have to travel to Seattle or Phoenix from South Bend, particularly vital in a crucial recruiting window.

But now, the days after Thanksgiving are a dead period, so the coaches cannot make those visits. They flew back with the team this year.

Combine that with the Big Ten flux and perhaps Notre Dame starts heading to USC at a different point in the calendar in 2024. (16.5/33)

34) “USC will not make the College Football Playoff.”

Between this, suggesting Ohio State would make the Playoff and mistakenly thinking Clemson would, as well, these preseason predictions accurately predicted the season conclusions for two of the three biggest Irish opponents in 2022. Already suspect the 2023 version will include none of the three making the Playoff. (17.5/34)

35) Sophomore receiver Lorenzo Styles’ disappointing 2022 — 30 catches for 340 yards and one touchdown — cost him any semblance of NFL draft buzz a year before he is eligible for the draft. A breakout 2023 would obviously change that, but that was not the prediction. (17.5/35)

36) Blake Grupe fell two makes short of the predicted 80 percent field-goal rate, finishing at 73.7 percent on 14-of-19. A career 74.4 percent kicker before he arrived at Notre Dame, the Arkansas State graduate transfer’s 2022 fell in line with his career. (17.5/36)

37) Arguing Notre Dame would score fewer than 32.8 points per game in 2022 was based on the lack of depth at receiver, subsequently underscored by Styles’ struggles. Expecting the Irish to slow things down made a lower-scoring season a strong thought, though perhaps not as low as the 31.4 scored per game in 2018, the low of the last six years.

Notre Dame threaded that needle with 31.8 points per game, a number buoyed, though not shockingly, by the punt-block unit and Morrison’s contributions. (18.5/37)

38) The Irish had gone 54-10 in Brian Kelly’s final five years in South Bend, winning at least 10 games each year. Predicting a sixth season of double-digit wins was a mistake largely thanks to Audric Estimé’s fumble in the fourth quarter against Stanford. (18.5/38)

39) This final stretch of predictions focused on hitting a few tight windows. The spread against USC, the exact scoring average and … where Notre Dame would play in a bowl game.

“Notre Dame will play in Florida before New Year’s.”

As complicated as bowl scenarios get during the season and then even the week of selections with the Holiday Bowl in San Diego reportedly campaigning hard for the Irish, sticking with initial expectations would have been a smart travel-planning strategy. (19.5/39)

40) 

(20.5/40)

40 Preseason Predictions Revisited, part I: Notre Dame’s rushing offense hid many early struggles
Part II: Notre Dame’s upset losses should have been expected from a first-year head coach
Part III: Notre Dame’s November far from the expected disappointment

40 Preseason Predictions Revisited, part III: Notre Dame’s November far from the expected disappointment

Clemson v Notre Dame
Getty Images
2 Comments

Recapping these preseason predictions bit by bit has emphasized how much of a see-saw Notre Dame’s 2022 was. They expected decent Irish success at Ohio State to open the season, which was realized. They then plainly assumed Notre Dame would continue to wallop overmatched opponents as Brian Kelly made the default.

Instead, Marcus Freeman stubbed his toe twice as first-year head coaches are wont to do, rendering that stretch of predictions largely flawed.

Now, the predictions tilt into early November, expecting little from the Irish. Of course, that was exactly when Freeman delivered the defining moment of his debut campaign.

21) “Notre Dame will top last year’s 41 sacks, which was a Kelly Era high. The Ademilola twins, junior defensive end Rylie Mills and at least one linebacker will each make at least three sacks.”

The first part of that fell inarguably short, 38 clearly less than 41. But the next sentence held more merit. Defensive end Justin Ademiloa and twin brother tackle Jayson Ademilola each had three sacks while Mills added 3.5. No linebacker reached three unless willing to still count Jordan Botelho as a linebacker with his 4.5 sacks. Given two of those came in the Gator Bowl when Botelho was clearly a defensive end, that would be generous grading. Instead, this entire prediction should be considered wrong, alas. (12/21)

22) Did this space continue publishing as planned after the Minnesota Timberwolves home opener? The running content calendar says a “Leftovers & Links” column ran on Oct. 20, the day after. Take the wins where you can find them, especially as a Timberwolves fan. (13/22)

23) The Irish had won 25 straight regular-season games against ACC opponents entering the season. Predicting that would reach 27 meant predicting Notre Dame would beat North Carolina and Syracuse. Check and check. (14/23)

24) That did not push the Irish into the top 10 of the initial College Football Playoff rankings, as predicted, thanks to the mishaps against Marshall and Stanford. (14/24)

25) And here comes a stretch of predictions predicated in pessimism, focused on how Notre Dame would fare against Clemson. The Irish had won 16 straight games in November entering the 2022 season. Suggesting that would end at 16 was suggesting Notre Dame would lose to Clemson on the first weekend of November.

Rather, that was the win in Freeman’s first season that will be long remembered. (14/25)

26) That expected loss was based on Clemson’s defensive front holding Notre Dame’s ground game in check. There was no expectation the Irish would dominate there with 264 rushing yards on 46 carries after adjusting for a single one-yard sack. Logan Diggs ran for 114 yards on 17 carries while Audric Estimé took 18 rushes for 104 yards. (14/26)

27) That loss did not knock Clemson out of the College Football Playoff. The Tigers messing around and finding out against South Carolina did that. But regardless, predicting Clemson would return to the Playoff was ill-fated. (14/27)

28) Notre Dame was 30-1 in its last 31 home games entering the season. Predicting that would reach 35-2 in step with suggesting the Irish would lose to the Tigers was wrong in all sorts of ways, most notably in that the stretch is now 34-3 after Notre Dame went just 4-2 at home last season. Again, Marshall and Stanford. (14/28)

29) Boston College receiver Zay Flowers did not have the predicted 40-yard catch on Senior Day at Notre Dame Stadium. He had a long of 39 yards on a snow-covered field playing with a backup quarterback.

The spirit of the prognostication was valid, but alas. (14/29)

30) Former Irish tight end George Takacs did not catch a touchdown in his return with the Eagles. No one did. (14/30)

31) And former Notre Dame quarterback Phil Jurkovec did not have a “perfectly adequate day in his return to South Bend, not dramatic enough in any regard to confirm or deny anyone’s expectations for him that day.”

Jurkovec did not play at all, so let’s call this wager a push. He did, however, make some headlines from the sideline.

There is a strong chance this prediction is rerun in its entirety in 2023 with Jurkovec and Pittsburgh heading to South Bend on Oct. 28. (14.5/31)